Q.56 Describe the process of setting up a Kubernetes federation for global deployments.

  1. Host Cluster Installation: Set up a dedicated Kubernetes cluster to act as the federation “host” where control plane components will reside.
  2. Member Cluster Preparation: Ensure you have multiple Kubernetes clusters running geographically or topologically distinct (different cloud providers, etc.) These will join the federation.
  3. Deploy Federation Control Plane: Install the required control plane components in the host cluster (API server, controller-manager).
  4. Join Member Clusters: Install federation agents on each member cluster that you want to federate.
  5. Create Federated Resources: Choose which existing Kubernetes object kinds (DeploymentsServices, etc.) you want to be federated using CRDs.
  6. Configuration and Policies: Use tools like kubefedctl to manage cross-cluster replication, placement across zones, and overall federation rules.

Use Cases:

  • Geographically distributed workloads: Manage applications close to users across zones for low latency, or disaster recovery with failover to alternate regions.
  • Multi-cloud or hybrid-cloud scenarios: Span Kubernetes clusters across different cloud providers or on-premises deployments.

Q.57 What are the best practices for securing Kubernetes API server endpoints?

  • Strong Authentication: Enforce robust authentication for access (avoid basic auth). Consider TLS client certificates or integrating with an external identity provider.
  • Fine-grained Authorization: Utilize Kubernetes Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) to implement the principle of least privilege.
  • TLS Encryption: Always use TLS to encrypt communication to the API server. Protect both internal and external traffic.
  • Limit Network Access: Restrict access using firewalls or Network Policies – allow only necessary sources to reach the API server.
  • Audit Logging: Enable audit logging to track all API server requests for security analysis and incident response.
  • Regular Updates: Patch your Kubernetes components to promptly address known vulnerabilities.

Use Cases:

  • Prevent unauthorized access: Keep sensitive cluster data and configuration safe from intruders.
  • Compliance: Meet strict security standards required in regulated industries.


  • Integrate the API server with an SSO provider for authentication, and use RBAC to control access to different areas of the cluster.

Q.58 How do you handle rolling updates for stateful applications in Kubernetes?

  • StatefulSets: StatefulSets provide pod identity and manage ordered, graceful updates and rollbacks of stateful applications.
  • Update Strategies: StatefulSets offer two main update strategies:
    • RollingUpdate: Gradual pod replacement, important for maintaining availability.
    • OnDelete: Updates pods manually for fine-grained control, often requiring downtime.
  • Persistent Storage: Use Persistent Volumes and Persistent Volume Claims to ensure each new pod can attach to its designated data.
  • Application Awareness: Ensure your application itself handles data synchronization or replication on pod replacement or failover.

Use Cases

  • Databases (MySQL, PostgreSQL)
  • Message Queues (Kafka, RabbitMQ)
  • Any application that relies on preserving data between restarts.


StatefulSet for MongoDB with a RollingUpdate strategy allowing one replica to be updated at a time.

Q.59 Discuss the use of Kubernetes Operators for managing complex applications.

  • Handling Complexity: Operators address managing applications as complex as databases, message queues, or even other Kubernetes clusters. They automate complex administrative tasks.
  • Operational Knowledge as Code: Operators codify deployment, upgrades, reconfiguration, backup/restore, and failure recovery workflows as software logic.
  • Extending Kubernetes: Operators add application-specific intelligence and control loops into Kubernetes through CRDs and controllers.

Use Cases:

  • Stateful Sets: Operators simplify the lifecycle management of stateful applications that otherwise require manual intervention.
  • External dependencies: Manage interaction with cloud services, databases not in Kubernetes, or custom infrastructure.
  • Day 2 Operations: Automaticity and codified knowledge lead to self-managing applications beyond initial deployment.


A Prometheus Operator installs Prometheus server, sets up configurations, manages alert rules, and scales as monitoring needs change.

Q.60 How would you design a disaster recovery strategy for a critical Kubernetes workload?

  • Redundant Clusters: Distribute workloads across multiple clusters in different geographic regions or failure domains.
  • HA Architecture: Design applications and clusters with high availability within each cluster as well (see earlier questions on HA).
  • Regular Backups: Back up the state of etcd and application data, and store these backups off-cluster in a safe location.
  • Recovery Procedures: Have well-defined and tested recovery plans to minimize downtime during failures. Automation plays a key role.
  • DR Testing: Regularly simulate failures and test the entire disaster recovery process to ensure it works in practice.

Use Cases:

  • Any business-critical application with high uptime requirements.
  • Workloads subject to regional disruptions.


  • Two regional Kubernetes clusters.
  • Backups of both etcd and stateful application data to cloud object storage.
  • A documented plan for failing over to the recovery cluster, potentially using automation tools to speed the process.

Part 1- Kubernetes Interview Q & A (Q1-Q5)

Part 2- Kubernetes Interview Q & A (Q6-Q10)

Part 3 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.11 to Q.15)

Part 4 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.16 to Q.20)

Part 5 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.21 to Q.25)

Part 6 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.26 to Q.30)

Part 7 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.31 to Q.35)

Part 8 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.36 to Q.40)

Part 9 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.41 to Q.45)

Part 10 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.46 to Q.50)

Part 11 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.51 to Q.55)

Hope you find this post helpful.

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