Q.31 What is a Kubernetes StatefulSet, and when would you use it?

A Kubernetes StatefulSet is a controller that manages the deployment and scaling of pods with a focus on preserving state, guaranteeing ordered deployments/deletions, and providing stable network identity.

StatefulSets handle applications that rely on persistent storage (databases, message queues) or require their pods to have unique, persistent network identifiers.

Use Cases:

  • Databases: (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra, or MySQL) to maintain data consistency and reliability.
  • Clustered Applications: Applications that need coordinated operation, such as Zookeeper or Kafka clusters.
  • Applications Requiring Stable Identifiers: Apps where each pod needs its own unique name/hostname (e.g., for peer-to-peer communication).

Q.32 How do you handle secrets and sensitive data in Kubernetes securely?

Kubernetes Secrets: Built-in objects designed to store small amounts of sensitive data (usernames, passwords, API tokens). Secrets are base64 encoded and not fully encrypted by default.

Best Practices:

  • Encryption at Rest: Consider using an external secret management solution that integrates with Kubernetes (e.g., HashiCorp Vault, AWS Secrets Manager).
  • RBAC (Role-Based Access Control): Strictly control access to secrets using RBAC.
  • Minimize Secret Exposure: Limit the number of pods with access to a secret using pod selectors. Consider injecting secrets as environment variables or via volume mounts as needed, rather than including them directly in pod definitions.

Use Cases:

  • Database Passwords: Avoid storing database credentials directly in Pod specs.
  • API Keys: Prevent hardcoding API keys into application configuration.
  • TLS Certificates: Securely store certificates for HTTPS connections.

Q.33 Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using Helm charts for application deployment.

Helm: A package manager for Kubernetes that simplifies the process of defining, versioning, installing, and managing Kubernetes applications. Helm charts bundle together Kubernetes resource definitions as a single unit of deployment.


  • Reusability: Predefined Helm charts for common applications promote faster and more consistent deployments.
  • Versioning: Version management capabilities ease tracking, rollbacks, and upgrades.
  • Complexity Management: Charts allow you to define complex applications with dependencies as packaged entities.


  • Steeper Learning Curve: Understanding Helm concepts and syntax requires investment.
  • Potential Complexity: Extensive use of charts and overrides can create a maintenance burden.
  • Security: Be mindful of the provenance of public Helm charts and carefully review them before use.

Q.34 What is a Kubernetes custom resource (CR), and how can you create one?

Custom Resources (CRs): CRs enable the extension of the Kubernetes API to manage your own custom objects/state representing applications or infrastructure components.

Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs): A CRD defines the schema and structure of your custom resource (similar to a blueprint).

Controllers: To handle CRs, you need to develop a controller (software) that observes changes and takes action to reconcile the desired state defined in your CRs.

Use Cases:

  • Application Management: Create CRs to manage the lifecycle of complex applications and define custom states to control them.
  • Operator pattern: Develop Kubernetes Operators to automate operational tasks (backups, upgrades, etc.) related to your custom resources.
  • Integration of External Systems: Create CRs to represent resources in external systems and manage them via the Kubernetes API.

Q.35 How do you set resource limits and requests for containers in a Kubernetes pod?

Resource Requests: Guarantee a minimum allocation of resources (CPU, memory) for a container. Kubernetes scheduler makes placement decisions based on requests.

Resource Limits: Define the maximum CPU and memory a container is allowed to use. Prevents a container from monopolizing cluster resources.

Setting limits and requests in Pod Spec:

Part 1- Kubernetes Interview Q & A (Q1-Q5)

Part 2- Kubernetes Interview Q & A (Q6-Q10)

Part 3 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.11 to Q.15)

Part 4 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.16 to Q.20)

Part 5 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.21 to Q.25)

Part 6 – Kubernetes Interview Questions & Answers (Q.26 to Q.30)

Hope you find this post helpful.

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